GOV THEORY SECTION: A Answer any 2 questions 3a) A political party is an alliance of like-minded people who work together to win elections and control of the government. Political parties compete against one another for political power and for the ability to put their philosophies and policies into effect.
3bi) To contest elections: In most democracies, elections are fought mainly among the candidates put up by political parties. Parties select their candidates in different ways. ii)Forming policies and programmes: Parties put forward different policies and programmes and the voters choose from them. Each of us may have different opinions and views on what policies are suitable for the society iii)Making laws: When parties come to power, they make laws for the country. Formally, laws are debated and passed in the legislature. Members of the ruling party follow the directions of party leaders, irrespective of their personal opinions. iv)Parties form and run governments: Parties recruit leaders, train them and then make them ministers to run the government in the way they want. v)Role of opposition: Parties that lose in elections, play the role of opposition to the parties in power by criticising the government for its failures or wrong policies.
4a)A bicameral legislature is one in which the legislators are divided into two separate assemblies, chambers or houses.
IN CAMERA LEGISLATURE i)One chamber or house changing and implementing the law is called unicameral legislature. There are two chambers or houses are present to amend and implement the law. ii)In the unicameral system, quick decisions and more accountability is possible whereas the accountability and the decision making processes are difficult and time consuming.
IN UNICAMERA LEGISLATURE i)The number of members in the unicameral is usually less than the members of the bicameral system resulting in less expense in the unicameral. ii)The powers of the unicameral members are enough for making rude decisions and passing the law which is not feasible for the general public. The powers of the upper hand are controlled by the other hand and thus, the chances of bad decision making are less in the bicameral system.
SECTION: B Answer any 3 questions 6) i)Military intervention should be outlawed. ii)There should accountability on the part of politicians in government. iii)Politics should be played according to laid down rules and regulations. iv)Ethnic politics should be avoided by politicians. v)There should be good leadership on the part of all elected officials. vi)Mismanagement of public funds should be avoided. vii)There should be free and fair elections.
7i)Consider and make recommendations on the general principles of cooperation for maintaining international peace and security, including disarmament; 7ii)Discuss any question relating to international peace and security and, except where a dispute or situation is currently being discussed by the Security Council, make recommendations on it; 7iii)Discuss, with the same exception, and make recommendations on any questions within the scope of the Charter or affecting the powers and functions of any organ of the United Nations; 7iv) Make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of any situation that might impair friendly relations among nations; 7v)Consider and approve the United Nations budget and establish the financial assessments of Member States;
8i)there should be no political interference in the affairs of commission. 8ii)The electoral commission must be made autonomous rather than appendage of executive aim of government 8iii)funding for the commission should be done from an independent fund not from the executive 8iv)security of tenure of office should be granted to members of the commission 8v)officials of the commission should be appointed for a fixed period 8vi)voting should be done secretly while counting of votes should be publicly done
OPTIONAL ANSWER 9) – The Preamble – The Government – The Territory – Separation of Powers – Sovereignty – Federalism
-The Preamble: This part of the constitution gives guidance to the constitution. Here we are given the chapter, sections and subsections of the constitution and pages where they can be found. The preamble is meant to direct or serve as a content page of the Nigerian constitution. The preamble could also be found on the 3rd to the with page of the Nigerian constitution of 1999. -Government: there must be a government whether elective or not run the affairs of the state. The type of government does not matter. It may be a military regime coo loan administration, Oligarchy, Diarchy, Monarchy, all of which are discussed below, what is infect important for this aspect of our study is that there must be a government to be in-charge of the affairs of the states -The territory: A state, legally is a defined boundary, although, such boundary is suppose to be permanent, if it change at all, such changes must not be at random. It is the territorial entities. -Separation of Powers: Separation of powers can be found in section 4, 5 and 6 of this sections delegate certain powers to be armor organs of Government in Nigeria. The Section 4 of the 1999 constitution talks about legislative arm of Government, Section 5 talk of the Executive and section 6 talks about solitary. -Sovereignty: Sovereignty could be defined as the ability for a nation to be total control without external interference. Nigeria according to 1999 constitution is a sovereign state and it can be found in section 2 of the Nigeria constitution. -Federalism: Federalism has to do with the division of Government, state and local government, And a federal system of government is attached by a ceremonial head known as the president it can be found in chapter part of the 1999 constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria.